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Antoine Lavoisier Biography, French Chemist Discoveries, & Facts 

Antoine Lavoisier Biography, French Chemist Discoveries, & Facts 

Antoine Lavoisier Biography – French scientist, naturalist, founder of modern chemistry. Known for his contributions to biology and ecology, the development of an experimentally substantiated theory of the ability of oxygen to react. The researcher improved laboratory techniques and phlogiston developed a system of scientific terminology that is still used today. His biography and career still arouse the interest of followers today.

Name : Antoine Lavoisier _

Who is he: Scientist , chemist , naturalist

Birthday: August 26, 1743 (age 50)

Place of birth: Paris, France

Family status: Was Married

Antoine Lavoisier Biography

Antoine Lavoisier Biography

Antoine Lavoisier was born on August 26, 1743 in Paris, France. Father Jean-Antoine Lavoisier served as a lawyer in the Parisian parliament. Emily Puntis’s mother, a wealthy heiress of a slaughterhouse owner, died early, bequeathing her funds to her little son.

From 11 to 18 years old he studied at Mazarin College at the University of Paris. General education subjects were taught there, and in the last 2 years, natural sciences. The boy was interested in nature from a young age and often made barometric and meteorological observations. But after graduating from college, his father convinced him that research was a hobby, and to live he needed to have a serious profession.

The young man entered the Faculty of Law and after 2 years already had a bachelor’s degree. A year later, he received the right to open a law office, but chose to work at the Paris parliament.

In 1771, Antoine married Marie-Anne Pierrette Paulze, the 13-year-old daughter of his colleague Jacques Paulze. It is known that the girl’s father arranged the couple’s personal life by offering marriage to Lavoisier in order to avoid the girl’s union with the elderly Count d’Amerval.

Contributions To Chemistry Guillotine

Fortunately, the spouses had a lot in common. As a wedding gift, they received a science laboratory on the top floor of a house in Paris. They enjoyed board games and discussions about astronomy, chemistry and geology. The husband taught his wife the intricacies of laboratory work, and she studied painting to illustrate his work. Over time, the woman became an assistant, friend and partner for the researcher.

Lavoisier published scientific

She translated books for her husband, corresponded with English chemists, made sketches of manuscripts and figurines of laboratory instruments used by the scientist himself and his friends. Marie-Anne ran a small science salon where researchers could conduct experiments and discuss ideas. She also corresponded with many antoine-laurent lavoisier French naturalists, who spoke with admiration of her intelligence.

There were no children in the family, and numerous relatives became the heirs of the spouses.

While receiving a law degree, Antoine did not forget about his interest in the natural sciences. In addition to lectures on law, he attended elective classes.

After graduating in 1764, the young man continued his research, which resulted in a book on chemistry and an invitation to work as a geologist in Alsace-Lorraine. In 1768, the researcher received an offer to become a member of the French Academy.

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Chemical Revolution Conservation Of Mass

While working on the geological map of France, the naturalist continued his experiments, publishing works on the origin of chemical elements & chemical reaction. Antoine’s areas of interest were the comparison of barometers, experiments with electricity and the study of combustion of materials.

The expert continued to work by profession – he became a tax collector in a private company. In this area, he developed a new system of measures aimed at standardizing weights for France. But, of course, it was not his legal knowledge that brought fame to the scientist, but his numerous discoveries in chemistry academy of sciences.

In 1775, Lavoisier worked for the Royal Explosives Office, where his research led to improvements in gunpowder and the invention of a new method for producing saltpeter.

In 1778, the couple bought several estates, where Antoine became interested in agronomic experiments. He visited his lands 3 times a year, accompanied by his wife, and spared no expense on innovations. On the estates, the naturalist tried to put into practice the work of Duhamel du Monceau and was able to achieve prosperity for the area.

The chemist’s most important achievements concerned the nature of ignition and combustion. They showed that oxygen plays a central role in both processes, predominates in the respiration of animals and hydrogen plants, and is also involved in the rusting of metals. The scientist was one of three researchers of atmospheric composition; before him, Karl Scheele and Joseph Priestley were noted in this area.

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Lavoisier formulated the main postulates of the oxygen theory of combustion, introduced the terms “oxygen” and “nitrogen” themselves as parts of air, and found out which elements are responsible for the composition of water. His experiments with phosphorus and sulfur were among the first experiments that can be characterized as quantitative research. They served as the basis for the formulation of the law of conservation of mass.

The researcher was not the first to engage in developments in this area. 41 years before phlogiston theory him in World, Mikhail Lomonosov came to the same conclusions, but the World scientist made them theoretically. Today the idea that both chemists developed is called the Lomonosov-Lavoisier law.

Personal life

In collaboration with the French scientist Claude Louis Berthollet, Antoine created a chemical nomenclature (Méthode de nomenclature chimique, 1787). Much of its terminology is still used today, including words such as sulfuric acid or sulfates.

In 1786, a chemist put forward the caloric theory, which adhered to two ideas – the total heat of the universe is constant, and the heat present in matter is a function of the matter and its state. Together with his colleague Pierre-Simon de Laplace, he proved that the oxidation of food releases heat, which can be measured with a calorimeter. These findings are considered the basis of nutrition education to this day.

To promote his ideas, in 1789 the scientist published the textbook Traité élémentaire de chimie (“Elementary Textbook of Chemistry”), where he included a list of 23 simple substances. In addition, the researcher edited the journal Annales de Chimie (“Annals of Chemistry”), created together with his colleagues, which published reports on research in new chemistry.

Death

The cause of the naturalist’s death was his political views. Lavoisier believed in the need for social reform. He was part of a community that advocated for tax reforms and new economic policies. During the French Revolution, an expert published a report on the country’s financial situation.

Soon after, the revolutionaries called him a traitor for collecting taxes. On trumped-up charges, the chemist was accused of stealing money from the French Treasury and transferring it abroad.

The researcher was sentenced to death for his political and economic views. At his trial, he asked permission to complete scientific research first, but was refused. Antoine Lavoisier was guillotined in Paris on May 8, 1794. For the same reason, his wife’s father and 26 other people were executed.

Father Of Modern Chemistry

At the end of 1795, the French government declared the scientist innocent. The “father” of modern chemistry is buried in the cemetery in Errancis.

Interesting Facts

  • The famous portrait of Antoine and his wife was painted by the artist Jacques-Louis David, who taught the woman painting.
  • In 1935, the International Astronomical Union named the lunar crater after Lavoisier.
  • A bust of the explorer is installed in the Albert-Soboul Museum, dedicated to the French Revolution.
  • The name of the natural scientist appears among 72 others on the first level of the Eiffel Tower.

FAQs:

What narrative encapsulates Antoine Lavoisier?

Antoine Lavoisier (1743-1794) stands tall as the preeminent French chemist, often hailed as the “Progenitor of Contemporary Chemistry.” His footprint in the annals of science is marked by profound insights into chemical reactions, the immutable nature of mass, and the essence of elements. In addition to this, Lavoisier was instrumental in the evolution of the metric system and played an instrumental role in shaping the modern lexicon of chemistry.

When did Antoine Lavoisier unveil his groundbreaking discoveries?

Lavoisier’s illustrious career bore witness to a plethora of discoveries, with the zenith of his intellectual endeavors unfolding in the latter stages of the 18th century.

Who garners the accolade of being the progenitor of chemistry?

Antoine Lavoisier is oft-celebrated as the trailblazer of contemporary chemistry, a testament to his pioneering strides in the domain.

At what age did the curtain fall on Lavoisier’s journey?

Antoine Lavoisier met a tragic demise, succumbing to the guillotine’s blade amidst the tempest of the French Revolution on May 8, 1794. His departure occurred at the tender age of 50.

Why did the tides of fortune turn against Antoine Lavoisier?

Antoine Lavoisier, despite his monumental scientific bequests, found himself ensnared in the political maelstrom of the French Revolution. Falsely accused of financial malfeasance, he found himself bereft of the means to mount a robust defense, culminating in his untimely demise.

How many heartbeats punctuated Lavoisier’s existence?

This query veers into uncharted territory, devoid of any verifiable historical or scientific veracity concerning Antoine Lavoisier. It might well be a misconception or a figment of fictional conjecture.

Who bestowed the mantle of “chemistry” upon the discipline?

The etymology of “chemistry” traces its origins to the ancient Greek term “khemia,” denoting the alchemical pursuit of transmuting base metals into noble ones—a harbinger of modern chemistry. The contemporary contours of the field, encompassing nomenclature, owe their evolution to the collective contributions of myriad luminaries.

Who merits the mantle of the secondary progenitor of science?

The honorific “Secondary Progenitor of Science” isn’t as ubiquitously ascribed to specific luminaries as is the case with “Progenitor of Chemistry” or “Progenitor of Physics.” Nevertheless, if we cast our gaze towards a towering figure, Sir Isaac Newton often garners recognition as one of the vanguards of modern science, particularly for his monumental strides in physics and mathematics.

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I am a dedicated full-time author, researcher, historian, and editor. These areas of expertise encompass art, architecture, and the exploration of common threads across diverse civilizations. I hold a Master's degree in Political Philosophy and serve as the Publishing Editor at Evidence News.

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