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Genghis Khan Biography, Conquests, World History , & Facts

Genghis Khan Biography, Conquests, World History , & Facts

Genghis Khan Biography was a 13th-century Mongol military leader who conquered Central Asian, Caucasian and Eastern European lands. Founder and ruler of the first continental power in history.

Genghis Khan (real name Temujin) is the founder and ruler of the largest continental empire in history. A military leader who carried out many conquests into the territory of Central Asia, China, the Caucasus and Eastern Europe.

Name : Genghis Khan Biography _

Who is he: founder , empire , khan

Birthday: 1162 (age 65)

Date of death: 25 August 1227

Place of birth: Delyun-Boldok, Mongolia

Family status: was married

Genghis Khan Biography

Genghis Khan Biography, Conquests,

A military leader and commander, a unifier of many lands, the founder of an empire and a just ruler – this is how the conqueror Genghis Khan is called. According to researchers, he was several steps ahead of his era, creating a society based on merit. In his homeland he is revered as a great ancestor and founder of the nation, and by some he is revered as a deity. The famous warrior forever changed the fate of his country and the world, playing a special role in the history of mankind.

Childhood and youth Early Life

The commander known as Genghis Khan was born in Mongolia, according to various sources, in 1155 or 1162. This man’s real name was Temujin, which meant “blacksmith.” He was born in the Delyun-Boldok tract, his father was Yesugei-bagatura, and his mother was Hoelun. It is noteworthy that Hoelun was engaged to another man, but Yesugei-Bagatura recaptured his beloved from his rival.

Temujin received his name in honor of the Tatar Temujin-Uge. Yesugei defeated this leader shortly before his son made his first cry.

Temujin lost his father early. At the age of 9, he was betrothed to 10-year-old Borte from a different family. Yesugei decided to leave his son in the bride’s house until they both reached adulthood. On the way back, Genghis Khan’s father stopped at a Tatar camp, where he was poisoned. 3 days later Yesugei died.

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After this, dark times came for Temujin, his mother, Yesugei’s second wife, as well as the brothers of the future great commander. The leader of the clan uprooted the family from their customary dwelling and stole all of the family’s cattle as punishment for their disobedience. For several years, widows and their sons had to live in poverty and wander the steppes.

After some time, the Taichiut leader, who drove out Temujin’s family and proclaimed himself the owner of all the lands conquered by Yesugei, began to fear revenge from Yesugei’s grown-up son. He sent an armed detachment against the family’s camp. The guy escaped, but was soon caught up, captured and placed in a wooden block. The cleverness of Genghis Khan, together with the intervention of numerous members of a different tribe, was what ultimately resulted in his survival.

Rise to power Mongols

Temujin, as the son of a leader, aspired to power. At first he needed support, and he turned to the Kereit khan Tooril. He was Yesugei’s brother-in-arms and agreed to unite with him. This was the beginning of the journey that would eventually earn Temujin the title of Genghis Khan. He raided neighboring settlements, increasing his possessions and, oddly enough, his army. Other Mongols during battles sought to kill as many opponents as possible. Temujin, on the contrary, sought to leave as many warriors alive as possible in order to lure them to himself.

The young commander’s first significant engagement was fought against the Merkit tribe, who were associated with the Taichiuts. They even kidnapped Temujin’s wife, but he, together with Tooril and another ally from another tribe – Jamukha – defeated their opponents and regained his wife. Later, his comrades defeated the Tatars, and Genghis Khan received not only booty, but also the honorary title of military commissar – Jauthuri.

Genghis Khan Biography,

On the eve of the decisive battle with the joint troops of Jamukha and Van Khan in 1202, the commander independently carried out another raid on the Tatars. At the same time, he again decided to act differently from what was customary in those days. Temujin stated that during the battle his Mongols should not capture booty, since all of it would be divided between them only after the battle was over. The future great ruler won in this battle, after which he ordered the execution of the Tatars as retribution for the Mongols whom they killed. Only small children were left alive.

There were also feuds between the commanders. So, in 1203, Temujin and Jamukha with Wang Khan met face to face. The outcome of the battle was to determine the fate of the winner, who would become the ruler of the steppes of Mongolia. At first, the ulus of the future Genghis Khan suffered losses, but due to the injury of Wang Khan’s son, the opponents retreated. Raids and regroupings of opponents continued for a year. As a result, Temujin’s army won the battle, which took place already in 1204.

Great Khan

In 1206, Temujin received the title of Great Khan over all the Mongol tribes and took the name Genghis, which translates as “Lord of the Endless in the Sea.” It was obvious that his role in the history of the Mongolian steppes was enormous, as was his army, and no one else dared to challenge him. This benefited Mongolia: if previously local tribes constantly fought with each other and raided neighboring settlements, now they became like a full-fledged state, divided into uluses. And if before this Mongolian nationality was invariably associated with strife and blood loss, now – with unity and power.

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Genghis Khan and his sons

Genghis Khan wanted to leave behind a legacy not only as a conqueror, but also as a wise ruler. He proposed a legislation of his own, which included provisions prohibiting dishonesty towards someone in whose confidence one has placed their faith and requiring cooperative efforts during political campaigns. These moral principles were required to be strictly observed, otherwise the violator could face execution.

The commander mixed tribes and peoples, and no matter what tribe the family belonged to before, its adult men were considered warriors of Genghis Khan’s detachment. As a result, the army consisted of 150 thousand infantry and 80 thousand horsemen. They had excellent physical fitness. Thus, army archers were able to shoot while galloping in different directions, turning 180 degrees.

Conquests of Genghis Khan Unite

In the period from 1207 to 1211, the army of the great ruler subjugated the peoples of Siberia and forced them to pay tribute to Genghis Khan. But the commander was not going to stop there: he wanted to conquer China.

In 1213, he invaded the Chinese state of Jin, establishing rule over the local province of Liaodong. All along the route of Genghis Khan and his army, Chinese troops surrendered to him without a fight, and some even went over to his side. By the fall of 1213, the Mongol ruler had strengthened his position along the Great Wall of China. Then he sent 3 powerful armies, led by his sons and brothers, to different regions of the Jin Empire. Some settlements surrendered to him almost immediately, others fought until 1235. However, as a result, the Tatar-Mongol yoke spread throughout China at that time.

Map of Genghis Khan's conquests

But even the conquest of China could not force Genghis Khan to stop the invasion. Having achieved success in battles with his closest neighbors, he became interested in Central Asia and the fertile Semirechye. In the year 1213, the fugitive Naiman Khan Kuchluk became the ruler of this province. Naiman Khan Kuchluk made a political mistake by beginning the persecutio of Muslims and other adherents of Islam. As a direct consequence of this development, the chieftains of a number of established tribes in Semirechye publicly declared their assent to become Genghis Khan’s subjects. Subsequently, Mongol troops conquered other regions of Semirechye, allowing Muslims to perform religious services and thereby arousing sympathy among the local population.

Genghis Khan hated betrayal, so after the Persians brutally murdered the Mongol ambassador, he dealt with the people inhabiting what is now Iran. Up to 90% of the country’s population was destroyed, and the size of the state never reached its previous level until the 20th century.

The Mongol Empire is considered the largest unified state in history. If you look at the map, it stretched from the Pacific Ocean to Eastern Europe. The area of its territory was 20 million square meters. km.

Personal life

In Genghis Khan’s personal life there were 3 women: the previously mentioned Borte, as well as his second wife Khulan-Khatun and his third Tatar wife Yesugen, who bore him 16 children. Among other things, according to legend, the commander owned a harem of many thousands: Genghis Khan believed that a large number of descendants testified to the importance of a man. It is not surprising that, according to a study conducted in 2003, at that time there were 8% of men (or 16 million) living in the country with identical Y chromosomes. They all belonged to an ancient family. And in 2006, a direct descendant of Genghis Khan was found – he turned out to be accounting teacher Tom Robinson.

Genghis Khan with his wife

Numerous descendants of Genghis Khan, his brothers, children and grandchildren became statesmen and tried to preserve their conquests. The ruler’s son prepared a campaign against Europe, but the army was unable to pass through the territory of modern Hungary – wet weather prevented it, which made the area very swampy. This campaign was led by his grandson, Batu Khan . The descendants of the dynasty through the four sons of the ruler from his first wife Borte ruled until 1920. The first prime minister of the state also belonged to an ancient family.

Death

In the last year of his life, the commander undertook a campaign to conquer the Tangut kingdom, whose army he managed to defeat. The military leader died shortly before the capitulation of Zhongxing, the capital of the region. The causes of Genghis Khan’s death are various: a fall from a horse, a sudden illness, the inability to adapt to the difficult climate of another country. This happened in 1227, on August 18 or 25.

It is still not known exactly where the grave of the great conqueror is located. There are a number of legends about how and where the burial took place. According to one version, 40 virgins and 40 horses were buried with the great Mongol so that his afterlife would be happy.

Tamerlane and Genghis Khan

According to the chronicler of the 17th century, the burial site was Burkhan-Khaldun, according to other researchers – the northern slope of Altai Khan or the southern slope of Kentei Khan. The name of the area Yekhe-Utek also sounded. In addition, there is a legend according to which Genghis Khan himself ordered the flooding of his tomb. In any case, there is a belief that after the grave is found and opened, a difficult war will begin in the world.

The Great Khan’s inheritance amounted to 500 tons of gold and 3 thousand tons of silver. But it disappeared after the son of Genghis Khan came to power. The treasure with ingots of precious metals was never found. According to legend, it was hidden in 7 wells.

Memory

Genghis Khan remains the main hero of Mongolia today; he is also revered in neighboring states. In his homeland, his image can be seen everywhere – on banknotes, coins, monuments, and even food labels. The airport in Ulaanbaatar bears his name. Statues are installed in London, Kalmykia, and Tuva.

Dschinghis Khan Group

Literary works are dedicated to the commander, including the story “The White Cloud of Genghis Khan” – part of the novel “And the Day Lasts Longer than a Century” by Chingiz Aitmatov . The films “Genghis Khan”, “The Conqueror”, and “The Golden Horde” were dedicated to the era of the reign of the great Mongol .

The German group, created in 1979, took the name Dschinghis Khan in honor of the great commander. They recorded a song and album of the same name.

Interesting Facts

  • According to legend, Genghis Khan was born with a blood clot in his palm, which was considered a good sign.
  • According to researchers, the commander is responsible for the death of 40 million people.
  • As a child, the future ruler killed Bekter’s half-brother, with whom he had a conflict over the division of spoils.
  • During the heyday of the empire, an alphabet appeared in the country. The Mongols borrowed it from the Uyghurs, who were captured after the conquest of the Naimans, where the former were engaged in written records.
  • The commander’s family tree today covers the period starting from the 5th century. It presents famous ancestors from the ruler’s family.
  • Another khan, Tamerlane, who lived in the 14th century in Central Asia and had a similar biography, was considered equal to the great Mongol in terms of ambitions and conquests. Tamerlane was not Genghisid, so he could only bear the title of emir. But he created the Timurid Empire with its capital in Samarkand.

FAQs:

1. Who was Genghis Khan?

Genghis Khan, also known as Temujin, was a legendary Mongol leader who founded the Mongol Empire in the 13th century.

2. What is the significance of Genghis Khan in world history?

Genghis Khan is known for uniting nomadic Mongol tribes and creating one of the largest empires in history.

3. How did Genghis Khan die?

Genghis Khan died in 1227, though the exact cause of his death remains a subject of historical debate.

4. What were Genghis Khan’s early life and upbringing like?

Genghis Khan’s early life was marked by challenges and hardships after the death of his father when he was just a child.

5. How did Genghis Khan conquer such vast territories?

Genghis Khan’s military strategies, innovative tactics, and ability to unite diverse tribes played a crucial role in his conquests.

6. What were Genghis Khan’s contributions to Mongolian culture and tradition?

Genghis Khan’s legacy includes not only his military conquests but also the establishment of a code of law and religious tolerance in his empire.

7. How did Genghis Khan’s successors continue his legacy?

Genghis Khan’s sons, particularly Ogedei and Kublai Khan, expanded and ruled over the empire after his death.

8. What impact did Genghis Khan have on Central Asia and neighboring regions?

Genghis Khan’s conquests reshaped the political and cultural landscape of Central Asia, China, and parts of Europe.

9. How did Genghis Khan’s empire eventually decline?

After Genghis Khan’s death, internal conflicts and external pressures led to the eventual fragmentation of the Mongol Empire.

10. What is the “Secret History of the Mongols,” and how does it contribute to our understanding of Genghis Khan?

The “Secret History of the Mongols” is an important historical text that provides insights into the life and times of Genghis Khan, as well as the early Mongol tribes.

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I am a dedicated full-time author, researcher, historian, and editor. These areas of expertise encompass art, architecture, and the exploration of common threads across diverse civilizations. I hold a Master's degree in Political Philosophy and serve as the Publishing Editor at Evidence News.

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