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Karl Marx Biography Theory, Beliefs, Communism, Sociology, Religion, & Facts 

Karl Marx Biography Theory, Beliefs, Sociology, Religion, & Facts 

Karl Marx Biography is the ideologist of socialism, the author of the large-scale work “Capital”, the founder of Marxism.

The future philosopher was born on May 5, 1818 in the family of ethnic Jews Heinrich Marx and Henrietta Marx in the German city of Trier. The parents belonged to two large families of rabbis. Karl’s father practiced law and became a Lutheran for the sake of his career. The mother and her children were baptized seven years after her husband, in 1824. Karl Marx was the third child in a large family. His father, a fan of the ideas of the Enlightenment and Kantian philosophy, had a great influence on the boy’s upbringing.

Name : Karl Marx Biography  _

Who is he: writer , poet , public figure , journalist , economist , philosopher , sociologist

Birthday: May 5, 1818 (age 64)

Date of death: March 14, 1883

Place of birth: Trier, Germany

Family status: widower

Karl Marx Biography

Karl Marx Biography Theory, Beliefs, Communism, Sociology, Religion,

Heinrich’s friend Ludwig von Westphalen introduced young Karl to the philosophy of antiquity and the literature of the Renaissance. In 1835, the young man graduated from the Trier Friedrich-Wilhelm Gymnasium, where he received a basic knowledge of mathematics, Latin, German, Greek and French. After which he entered the University of Bonn, and then transferred to Berlin. At lectures, students were taught philosophy, law and history. Having independently studied the works of thinkers of the past, Marx took the teachings of Hegel as the basis for his own worldview, in which the young man was attracted by the atheistic and revolutionary aspects.
The house where Karl Marx was born

Under the guidance of Ludwig von Westphalen, Karl Marx, at the age of 24, created a dissertation on the study of the philosophical theories of Epicurus and Democritus. In addition to classical philosophy, Karl Mark paid special attention to the works of Feuerbach, Smith, Ricardo, Saint-Simon and other contemporary thinkers.

Social and political activities Das Kapital

At the beginning of his career, Marx intended to become a professor at the University of Bonn, but the reactionary government at the end of the 30s had already begun a purge among the university’s teaching staff in order to destroy the sprouts of the leftist movement in the bud. Following Ludwig Feuerbach, Professor Bruno Bauer was fired, so Marx abandoned the idea of teaching.

Young Karl Marx

A year later, Marx’s book “Towards a Critique of Hegel’s Philosophy of Law” was published. The young man gets a job at the Rheinische Gazeta, where he writes a political column. The philosopher sharply criticized the ruling regime. Ultimately, from the pages of the publication, Marx began to call for the overthrow of the existing regime, which incurred the wrath of the government. While working as a newspaper editor, Karl realized that he had little understanding of the structure of political economy, so he delved into the study of the issue of interest.

The ruling elite is trying to win over a young journalist-philosopher who receives support from the population of Prussia. But Marx does not agree to compromise with the police regime. For such a decision, the young thinker is forced to be deported. In the fall of 1843, Karl Marx and his family hastily left his homeland and moved to the capital of France.

Karl Marx studies economics

In Paris, the philosopher met his future comrade-in-arms Friedrich Engels , as well as the German poet Heinrich Heine. For two years the reformer moved in radical circles in France. Marx gets acquainted with the ideas of the founders of anarchism P. Proudhon and M. Bakunin.

Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels

After 1845, Karl Marx moved to Belgium. Together with Engels, the philosopher becomes a member of the secret international society “Union of the Just,” which was organized in Brussels by German citizens. The underground members instructed two figures to create the text of the program of a communist society. As a result of the joint work of Marx and Engels, the “Manifesto of the Communist Party” was written, which was released in a limited edition at a London printing house in early 1848.

Karl Marx

In the same year, the Belgian authorities forced Marx to leave the country, and the communist theorist moved to Paris for a month, from where he was sent back to Germany. In Cologne, under the leadership of Marx and Engels, the revolutionary publication Neue Rheinische Zeitung begins work, but within a year its publication ceases due to the defeat of workers’ uprisings in the Saxon, Rhine and Southwestern districts of Germany. Repression begins.

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London period

Work in a political publication compromises Karl before the authorities, and the scientist and his family emigrate to London in the early 50s. It was in Great Britain in 1867 that the main work in the biography of Marx, Capital, appeared. The philosopher works a lot to study various fields of science, among which social philosophy, political economy, mathematics, agricultural chemistry and mineralogy attracted Marx’s special attention. At first, Marx’s family in London was extremely poor, but soon his friend Engels came to the aid of the philosopher, who financed the large family free of charge.

Karl Marx at work

In 1864, under the leadership of Marx, the “International Workers’ Association” or First International opened. Initially, the backbone of the organization consisted of anarchists, French socialists, Italian republicans, and trade unionists. Due to the defeat of the Paris Commune in 1872, Marx’s organization moved to New York, but after 4 years the community ceased to exist in America. It was only in 1889 that the Second International began its work, a successor to the ideas of the First International.

Marxism

The ideological principles of Karl Marx were formed in the mid-40s. The scientist’s worldview was based on the ideas of Ludwig Feuerbach, with whom Marx initially agreed and then entered into controversy. In his own work, the philosopher summarized the views of the teachings of the German, English and French philosophical and political schools. Based on the material he studied, Karl Marx created a consistent, integral system of views on materialism, scientific socialism and the labor movement.

Materialistic history

The concept of “materialist history” first appeared in the joint work of Marx and Engels “German Ideology”. This theory was further developed in the Communist Manifesto and the Critique of Political Economy. Marx logically derived the famous formula: “Existence determines consciousness.” According to the scientist, the basis of every society is the productive forces on which other social institutions are based: politics, jurisprudence, religion, art.

Karl Marx explains his theory

The main task of society is to maintain a balance between production forces and production relations, which, if contradictory, lead to social revolution. In the theory of materialist history, Karl Marx distinguishes the features of the slave, feudal, bourgeois and communist systems. Communism is divided into two stages, the lowest of which is socialism, and the highest is communism itself with the abolition of all financial institutions.

Scientific communism

Karl Marx, within the framework of the concept of progress in human history, identified class struggle as the driving force of social development. Marx and Engels considered the proletariat to be the class that would overthrow capitalism and lead to the establishment of a new international classless order. This will require a world revolution.

“Capital” and socialism

Karl Marx, in his work Capital, most fully revealed his own concept of the economics of capitalism. The first volume was published 6 years before the death of the scientist, the next two were published only after the death of the philosopher, with the assistance of a friend of Friedrich Engels. The fourth volume of Karl Marx’s work was the book “Theories of Surplus Value”, which was written 5 years before the release of the first volume of “Capital”.

Karl Marx at work on Capital

The text of the essay reveals issues related to the sphere of capital production and the law of value. The concepts of the formula of capital, labor, constant capital, variable capital, absolute (quantitative) and relative (qualitative) surplus value are formulated. According to the theory of Karl Marx, capitalism, by the constant discrepancy between variable and constant capital, provokes economic crises, which ultimately leads to the undermining of the system and the gradual abolition of private property, which is replaced by public property.

Personal life

During his student years, Life of Marx met a young girl, the first beauty of the city of Trier. Countess Jenny von Westphalen was 4 years older than the young thinker, but this did not prevent a whirlwind romance. The aristocrat rejected a number of respectable suitors for the sake of a young student. For 6 years, the young people were secretly engaged, since the German aristocratic family to which the bride belonged had a negative attitude towards the aspiring philosopher and writer of Jewish origin. But this did not stop the lovers from getting married in 1843 in the city of Kreuznach.

Karl Marx with his wife

Subsequently, Jenny’s half-brother, who served as Prussian Minister of the Interior for 8 years, persecuted the Marx family and contributed to their eventual expulsion from the country. By the way, the great-nephew of Karl Marx’s wife, Ludwig von Krosigg, was Minister of Finance and then the last Prime Minister of the Third Reich.

Karl Marx with his eldest daughter Jenny

Marx’s marriage turned out to be extremely strong and long. The philosopher’s wife was not only his faithful wife, but also his comrade-in-arms. Jenny helped Karl Marx write books. The loving couple had seven children in their family, but four of them died in childhood. The writer’s three daughters became famous. The eldest Jenny is a politician, journalist, wife of Paul Lafargue. Laura is a French socialist, the wife of Charles Longuet. Eleanor is the wife of Edward Aveling. Historians attribute to Karl Marx the paternity of the child of the family’s housekeeper, Helena Demuth. After the death of the philosopher, Engels took custody of the boy.

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Death

In 1878, Marx’s wife died after a long illness. Jenny battled cancer for several years. The loss broke Karl marx died, and he died of pleurisy on March 14, 1883. Marx was buried next to his wife in Highgate Cemetery.

Karl Marx's grave

The procession was attended by 10 people, comrades of Marx. Friedrich Engels, who became the editor of the philosopher’s unpublished works, had a great influence on the dissemination of Karl Marx’s ideas.

Memory

The name of Karl Marx was glorified after the victory of the October Revolution of 1917. On the territory of the USSR, a Karl Marx street or avenue appeared in every locality. In the homeland of the ideological leader of the international proletariat, the Karl-Marx-Stadt district was founded during the formation of the GDR. After the fall of the Berlin Wall, when the Democratic Republic was abolished, the district ceased to exist.

Monument to Karl Marx

During Soviet times, monuments to Karl Marx were opened in almost every locality. The first monument appeared in the city of Penza in 1918. Some libraries and research centers were dedicated to the name of Karl Marx.

Bibliography

  • The difference between the natural philosophy of Democritus and the natural philosophy of Epicurus – 1841
  • Towards a critique of Hegel’s philosophy of law – 1843
  • Economic and philosophical manuscripts – 1844
  • Theses on Feuerbach – 1845
  • German Ideology – 1846
  • Wage labor and capital – 1847
  • Salary – 1847
  • Manifesto of the Communist Party – 1848
  • Toward a Critique of Political Economy – 1859
  • Wages, Prices and Profits – 1865
  • Capital, vol. 1. – 1867
  • Capital, vol. 2. – 1885
  • Capital, vol. 3. – 1894
  • Capital, vol. 4. – 1905

FAQs:

Who was Karl Marx?

Karl Marx was a prominent philosopher, economist, and political theorist known for his revolutionary ideas on society, economics, and politics. He lived during the 19th century and is often associated with the development of Marxist theory.

What is Karl Marx’s biography?

Karl Marx was born in 1818 in Trier, Prussia (now Germany). He studied law and philosophy at the University of Bonn and later at the Humboldt University of Berlin. His parents were Jewish, and he was baptized as a Protestant. Marx’s life was marked by his deep engagement with philosophy, economics, and politics.

How did Karl Marx contribute to philosophy and society?

Karl Marx was influenced by Hegelian philosophy and developed his own materialist approach to understanding society and history. He believed in the dialectical method and argued that social change was driven by conflicts arising from material conditions.

What were Karl Marx’s key works?

Karl Marx’s major works include “Das Kapital” (Capital), “The Communist Manifesto” (co-authored with Friedrich Engels), and various other writings on economics, politics, and society. “Das Kapital” is his seminal work on political economy.

What is the Communist Manifesto?

The Communist Manifesto is a pamphlet written by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, published in 1848. It outlines the basic principles of communism, criticizes capitalism, and advocates for a proletarian revolution.

What is Marxism?

Marxism refers to the socio-political and economic theories developed by Karl Marx. It encompasses a range of ideas including historical materialism, the critique of capitalism, and the vision of a classless, communist society.

How did Karl Marx view capitalism?

Karl Marx critiqued capitalism as a system that exploits labor and leads to class divisions. He believed that the inherent contradictions within capitalism would eventually lead to its downfall.

Who was Friedrich Engels and how was he associated with Karl Marx?

Friedrich Engels was a close collaborator and friend of Karl Marx. They co-authored several important works, including “The Communist Manifesto.” Engels provided financial support to Marx and played a significant role in spreading Marxist ideas.

What was Karl Marx’s impact on modern society?

Karl Marx’s ideas have had a profound influence on various disciplines, including sociology, economics, and political science. His theories continue to be studied and debated, shaping discussions on class struggle, inequality, and social change.

What is the significance of Karl Marx’s life and contributions?

Karl Marx’s life and ideas revolutionized the way we think about society, economics, and politics. His critiques of capitalism and advocacy for communism continue to be relevant in contemporary discussions about social justice and inequality.

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I am a dedicated full-time author, researcher, historian, and editor. These areas of expertise encompass art, architecture, and the exploration of common threads across diverse civilizations. I hold a Master's degree in Political Philosophy and serve as the Publishing Editor at Evidence News.

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